Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks, increase fitness, and may delay the onset of diabetes. It could reduce pain and increase movement in people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.[failed verification] Weight loss is achieved by adopting a lifestyle in which fewer calories are consumed than are expended. According to the UK National Health Service, this is best achieved by monitoring calories eaten and supplementing this with physical exercise. Depression, stress or boredom may also contribute to weight increase, and in these cases, individuals are advised to seek medical help. A 2010 study found that dieters who got a full night’s sleep lost more than twice as much fat as sleep-deprived dieters. Though hypothesized that supplementation of vitamin D may help, studies do not support this. The majority of dieters regain weight over the long term. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, those who achieve and manage a healthy weight do so most successfully by being careful to consume just enough calories to meet their needs and being physically active.